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Développement durable : à Bruxelles, la révolution silencieuse

Pas une semaine ne passe sans qu’une tribune ne soit publiée en faveur d’un « monde d’après » prenant mieux en compte les impératifs sociaux et environnementaux. Co-signées par des économistes, des personnalités politiques, des chefs d’entreprise de tout secteur, ces professions de foi semblent montrer que la bataille culturelle autrefois portée uniquement par certains partis écologistes a été remportée. Les demandes d’aménagements par des représentants d’intérêts, aux niveaux national et européen, dans l’application de règles environnementales est pourtant un révélateur de l’absence d’unanimité sur le modèle économique à défendre.

Dans ce contexte, la consultation de la Commission européenne pour « renouveler sa stratégie en matière de finance durable » a été lancée début avril dans un surprenant anonymat. Elle s’apparente pourtant au coup d’envoi d’une véritable révolution culturelle des paradigmes capitalistes existants. L’exécutif européen y partage en effet sa réflexion sur les moyens de changer dans leurs fondements les règles du jeu économique et financier à l’aune des objectifs de développement durable. Plusieurs « fondamentaux » sont concernés.

Les normes comptables d’abord : elles sont au cœur de la valorisation des entreprises mais, en n’intégrant pas certaines données clés, elles semblent aujourd’hui inadaptées pour mesurer à leur « juste valeur » les investissements de long terme. Par exemple, les règles de dépréciation et d’amortissement tiennent-elles bien en compte de « la perte potentielle de valeur future des sociétés qui extraient, distribuent ou dépendent fortement des combustibles fossiles »[i] ? Allant plus loin, la Commission européenne imagine élaborer un système comptable ad hoc capable d’évaluer l’empreinte écologique des entreprises afin de valoriser financièrement leurs impacts et dépendances sur les ressources naturelles.

Autre pierre angulaire du système, les modes de rémunération des actionnaires, investisseurs et dirigeants ont une grande influence sur les prises de décisions stratégiques pour les entreprises. La Commission européenne invite à les reconsidérer en les indexant à des critères non-financiers (objectifs de parité, de réduction des émissions carbone, etc.). Dans le même esprit, la création d’obligations et de prêts dont les taux et le rendement dépendraient de la réalisation d’objectifs de développement durable prédéterminés permettrait de réinventer le principe même de la valorisation financière de la performance.

Enfin, comment mieux associer consommateurs, citoyens, investisseurs au train du changement ? Pour la Commission européenne, les modes de gouvernance actuels sont à repenser. Permettre par exemple aux actionnaires de voter sur les stratégies et les performances environnementales et sociales des organisations leur donnerait les moyens de peser de l’intérieur sur la politique « durable » des entreprises. Autre mesure phare, une labellisation des produits et des services durables, construits sur des critères simples et transparents permettrait de faciliter leur accès pour ceux qui le souhaitent.

Toute l’architecture économique est ainsi repensée au travers de pistes qui ne demandent qu’à être enrichies par les acteurs de terrain et les citoyens européens. La consultation (i) est ouverte jusqu’au 15 juillet. Nous le savons, l’UE est la bonne échelle pour pouvoir relever le défi du développement durable. Nous ne sommes qu’au début du processus de transformation et des leviers d’action démocratiques et européens existent. Alors, aux acteurs engagés : répondez, proposez, inventez !

Louis-Marie Durand

Directeur, EURALIA

[i] Consultation de la Commission européenne sur le renouvellement de la stratégie sur la finance durable

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